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Bacteremia Model

Bacteremia refers to the presence of bacteria that can multiply in the blood, which is a blood infection. According to the source of disease, bacteremia can be divided into primary bacteremia and secondary bacteremia. In primary bacteremia, bacteria enter the bloodstream directly. For example, the use of dirty injection equipment can lead to primary bacteremia; the use of vascular catheters contaminated with bacteria can also lead to primary bacteremia. Secondary bacteremia occurs when bacteria enter other parts of the body, such as skin incisions, lungs (respiratory tract), mouth or intestines (gastrointestinal tract), bladder (urinary tract), or genital mucosa. Bacteria that infect the body in these areas may spread to the lymphatic system, enter the bloodstream, and spread further there.

In addition, bacteremia can also be defined as transient, intermittent and continuous by the time the bacteria exist in the blood. In transient bacteremia, bacteria exist in the blood for a few minutes to several hours before being cleared out of the body. The result is usually harmless to healthy people. This may happen after manipulations on body parts that usually have bacteria, such as brushing, flossing, or oral mucosal surfaces during dental surgery, or fixing the bladder or colon. Intermittent bacteremia is characterized by infections in other parts of the body, such as abscesses, pneumonia, or bone infections, which periodically spread the same bacteria into the blood and then remove the bacteria from the blood. This cycle usually repeats until the existing infection is successfully treated. Persistent bacteremia is characterized by the persistent presence of bacteria in the bloodstream. It is usually the result of heart valve infection, centerline associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI), blood clot infection (suppurative thrombophlebitis), or blood vessel transplant infection. Persistent bacteremia can also occur as part of the infection process of typhoid fever, brucellosis, and bacterial meningitis. If left untreated, conditions that lead to persistent bacteremia can be fatal.

In blood containing bacteria, as these bacteria multiply, a potentially life-threatening infection called sepsis will develop. These conditions are caused by intermittent or continuous release of bacteria into the blood from other parts of the body (including the lungs, abdomen, and urinary tract). Therefore, corresponding drugs are needed clinically to treat infections. Creative Diagnostics has established an animal disease model for bacteremia research to determine the efficacy of new therapies.


We have established a bacteremia model through mice (rat verification is available upon request). In this model, mice are infected with the pathogen via intravenous (IV) injection of the lateral tail vein. After testing and forming a bacteremia model that meets the requirements, the animals are tested for antibacterial drug candidates by gavage (PO) or subcutaneous (SC), intravenous (IV) or intraperitoneal (IP) injection. In this process, we can customize each study parameter (animal strain, pathogen, comparator and dosing schedule) according to your requirements to meet the needs of various studies.

Our Services

The study's endpoints include mortality tracking, clinical observation, and CFU burden in organs, and/or blood.

  • Build customizable infection models
  • Provide in vivo antimicrobial evaluation services
  • Detect changes in CFU burden in organs and/or blood
  • Exposure-Response studies
  • Infected and non-infected blood/tissue PK studies (i.e. Brain, lung, soft tissue, and bone)
  • Single- and multiple-dose PK studies
  • Dose fractionation studies
  • Time course studies
  • Blood chemistry
  • Other tissue harvest and histological analysis


Creative Diagnostics has validated a bacteremia model using the following pathogens:

  • Enterococcus Faecalis (ATCC 700802)
  • Pseudomonas Aeruginosa (ATCC 13073)
  • Staphylococcus Aureus (ATCC 25904)
  • Streptococcus Pneumoniae (ATCC 700674)
  • Streptococcus Pyogenes (SP1-1)

Creative Diagnostics is a full-service contract research organization specializing in microbiology and preclinical infectious disease research. The correct animal model provides unlimited possibilities for drug discovery and human health advancement. At Creative Diagnostics, we believe that providing clients with the best animal model solutions is the most effective way to promote key research from creativity to reality. We guarantee that the animal models required in research are strictly regulated to ensure responsible, ethical, and humane treatment.


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We Are Providing Our Clients Antiviral & Antibacterial Services

Having extensive knowledge in cell biology and the application of cell-based assays to benefit clients in the drug and vaccine development industry

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Antiviral Services - Creative Diagnostics

Creative Diagnostics provides expertise in antiviral (or antibacterial) assays and cell-based antiviral (or antibacterial) compound screening to other biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies.

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