Tel: (USA) (UK) Email:

Systemic Models

Systemic infection (sepsis), severe systemic infection and septic shock represent different stages of the host's gradual increase in systemic inflammatory response to infection. Systemic infections are more common in the elderly, cancer or immunosuppressed patients. The most serious manifestation of systemic infection is multiple organ dysfunction and can lead to a chronic critical illness state. Its characteristics include severe immune dysfunction and catabolism.

In the interaction between the body and pathogenic bacteria, due to the weak immune function of the body, the pathogenic bacteria cannot be confined to the local area, so that the pathogenic bacteria and its toxins spread to the surroundings, through the lymphatic tract or directly invade the bloodstream, causing systemic infection. The following situations may occur during systemic infection:

  • Bacteremia is that pathogenic bacteria continuously invade the bloodstream from local lesions, but due to the effect of cellular immunity and humoral immunity in the body, pathogenic bacteria cannot grow and multiply in the bloodstream in large numbers. Such as bacteremia in the early stage of typhoid fever, brucellosis bacteremia.
  • Toxemia is the process of local growth and reproduction of pathogenic bacteria. The bacteria do not invade the bloodstream, but the toxins they produce enter the bloodstream, causing unique symptoms of poisoning, such as diphtheria and tetanus.

    Septicemia: When the body's defense function is weakened, pathogenic bacteria continuously invade the bloodstream, multiply in the bloodstream, release toxins, cause serious damage to the body, and cause symptoms of systemic poisoning, such as irregular high fever. Sometimes there are bleeding spots on the skin and mucous membranes, liver, splenomegaly, etc.

  • Pyosepticemia When purulent bacteria cause sepsis, the bacteria spread with the bloodstream and cause multiple purulent lesions in multiple organs throughout the body (such as liver, lung, kidney, etc.). Such as sepsis caused by severe infection of Staphylococcus aureus.
  • Endotoxemia Gram-negative bacteria invade the bloodstream, multiply in it, and release a large amount of endotoxin after disintegration: it can also be caused by the endotoxin released by a large number of Gram-negative bacteria in the lesion entering the bloodstream. Severe Gram-negative bacteria infection is often accompanied by endotoxemia.

Therefore, there is a clinical need for anti-infective drugs to treat diseases such as systemic infections. In order to better study systemic infections, Creative Diagnostics has established an animal disease model for systemic infections research to determine the efficacy of new therapies.


We have established a bacteremia model through mice (rat verification is available upon request). In this model, mice are infected with the pathogen via intravenous (IV) injection of the lateral tail vein. After testing and forming a systemic model that meets the requirements, the animals are tested for antibacterial drug candidates by gavage (PO) or subcutaneous (SC), intravenous (IV) or intraperitoneal (IP) injection. In this process, we can customize each study parameter (animal strain, pathogen, comparator and dosing schedule) according to your requirements to meet the needs of various studies.

Our Services

The study's endpoints include mortality tracking, clinical observation, and CFU burden in organs, and/or blood.

  • Build customizable infection models
  • Provide in vivo antimicrobial evaluation services
  • Detect changes in CFU burden in organs and/or blood
  • Exposure-Response studies
  • Infected and non-infected blood/tissue PK studies (i.e. Brain, lung, soft tissue, and bone)
  • Single- and multiple-dose PK studies
  • Dose fractionation studies
  • Time course studies
  • Blood chemistry
  • Other tissue harvest and histological analysis

Our Advantages

  • Ensure high efficiency and quality for systemic model services
  • Competitive price in the market of systemic model services
  • Ensure 24/7 online service
  • Timely result feedback

Creative Diagnostics is a full-service contract research organization specializing in microbiology and preclinical infectious disease research. The correct animal model provides unlimited possibilities for drug discovery and human health advancement. At Creative Diagnostics, we believe that providing clients with the best animal model solutions is the most effective way to promote key research from creativity to reality. We guarantee that the animal models required in research are strictly regulated to ensure responsible, ethical, and humane treatment.


Online inquiry


We Are Providing Our Clients Antiviral & Antibacterial Services

Having extensive knowledge in cell biology and the application of cell-based assays to benefit clients in the drug and vaccine development industry

Offering comprehensive solutions to drive your projects to completion

Delivering prompt quotations and competitive prices

Providing quality science and personalized customer service

Antiviral Services - Creative Diagnostics

Creative Diagnostics provides expertise in antiviral (or antibacterial) assays and cell-based antiviral (or antibacterial) compound screening to other biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies.

Contact us

  • Tel: (USA)
  • Tel: (UK)
  • Fax:
  • Email:

Copyright © Creative Diagnostics. All rights reserved.