Urinary tract infections (UTI) are among the most common bacterial infections of humans and incurring significant morbidity and healthcare-associated expenses. The majority of uncomplicated UTIs manifest as infections of the lower urinary tract: infection and inflammation of the urethra urethritis) or urinary bladder (cystitis). If bacteria ascend the ureters to the upper urinary tract, this results in pyelonephritis. This is particularly concerning, as bacteria in the kidneys may enter the bloodstream, causing sepsis. UTI is mostly caused by bacteria, through other microorganisms such as fungi and viruses that are rare etiologic agents. This type of infection can be classified as complicated or uncomplicated. Uncomplicated UTI is the most common type of infection and mainly occurs in the absence of functional or anatomical abnormalities within the urinary tract. The complicated one occurs in the presence of an abnormal urinary tract that increases susceptibility to infection.
Small animal models, which accurately reflect disease establishment and progression, permit dissection of host-pathogen interactions and generation of immunity to infection. Urine, bladder, and kidney tissues can be analyzed by bacterial culture, histology, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescent and confocal microscopy, electron microscopy, and flow cytometry, while a broad array of soluble markers (e.g., cytokines) can also be profiled in serum, urine, and tissue homogenates by ELISA, Western blotting, multiplex bead array, and other approaches.
The Urinary tract infections (UTI) model promises to afford continued opportunity for discovery of pathogenic mechanisms and evaluation of therapeutic and preventive strategies for acute, chronic, and recurrent UTI.
Figure 1. UPEC pathogenesis (Tamadonfar KO et al., Microbiol Spectr 2019 May;7(3))
Creative Diagnostics has established several different urinary tract infection models ranging from bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Treponema pallidum, Trichomonas vaginalis and Chlamydia trachomatis
Organisms involved in an urinary tract infection include the following:
Creative Diagnostics is a full-service contract research organization specializing in microbiology and preclinical infectious disease research. The correct animal model provides unlimited possibilities for drug discovery and human health advancement. At Creative Diagnostics, we believe that providing clients with the best animal model solutions is the most effective way to promote key research from creativity to reality. We guarantee that the animal models required in research are strictly regulated to ensure responsible, ethical, and humane treatment.